Levitation was first observed by two Swiss physchemists, Auguste Kocher and Henri Levy, in 1867 when “a group of very bright people” were performing pendulum-like experiments. They found that certain materials like titanium, calcium, and calcium-carbide gave off light when they were subjected to strong magnetic fields. They called this effect “magnetism”. In their experiments, the researchers found that “the phenomenon of levitation is due to the existence of a large magnetism, as is found in many chemical and biological processes”. In 1900, it was established that magnets are not only strong, but also conductive. Magnetic fields can cause levitation.
What cause magnetic attraction?
Magnetic attraction occurs when two particles meet and then repel each other. If you were at an attraction, you will feel a repulsion, and if you are at an attraction, you will feel a repulsion. (If this sounds familiar, it is because most objects attract each other because of strong magnetic fields.) Magnetic fields are so powerful that when they are strong enough, they actually repel each other, and this repulsion is much more intense than the attraction—at least in the opposite direction. In fact, the density of an atomic nucleus can be so low that the attraction between positively charged particles can be more powerful than the attraction even of negatively charged particles.
In a lab, a very tiny amount of electrical charge—just a millimeter on the scale—can cause a force of more than 100,000 Newton (1) pounds to accelerate an electron on the nucleus. Since each atom has about 10 to 10 20 pairs of electrons, the entire nucleus weighs about the same amount of energy as one of these 10 to 10 20 pairs of electrons.
The magnitude of the repulsion from the repulsion depends on the distance of the magnet from the nucleus. With a current of just 0.03 microamps (µA), an atom repels an electron with a force of 0.00028 times that of the attraction. If the current is increased to the order of a milliampere (µA/µs) and the electrons have to travel in the opposite direction, the repulsion forces are a hundred million times that of the attraction.
If you have more than one electron, you can experience the attraction between them, as with the nucleus you described earlier. As you move away from the nucleus, the repulsion forces increase until eventually your whole
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