Well, it may be as simple as our ancestors having “primitive” muscles with lots of cross-flexion and extending.
But the arms are complicated and not just any old muscles to explain where some of this energy (the energy is lost in walking) goes.
The simple answer is that our muscles are made up of bundles of interrelated muscles — called myofibrils.
The bundle is made of multiple myofibrils working in a complex circuit, in which our muscles work together, called a “branching.” It is also a network that connects all muscles in the body together, creating a greater strength and power to the bundle and the entire complex.
To see how it works, here’s a simplified (but not correct) image based on this diagram from this video:
As you can see, the fibers are arranged into a structure that looks like a chain. The fibers form a complex network that connects muscles around the joint with each other in some way.
So why the arm movement?
There are a few possible answers, but all are just guesses on our part.
The most common is the idea that we are constantly trying to flex the elbow, bend the knee, and extend the arm. This means that all the components involved are interconnected and in some way working. This is because that’s all we focus on while driving the car or walking. We do not pay attention to the steering wheel, pedals, clutch (when we use it), and even the brake pedal. We think of the wheel, pedals, and clutch while watching a movie or TV show.
But as you can see from the illustration above (we did not draw the leg connection, the fibers are all intertwined), the bundle is not actually connected to the muscle itself. Instead, that connection is made up of several other muscle bundles in a different way that’s still connected to the bundle. So how can walking be so complicated?
Here’s an image of two people, one standing on one leg — one is right-handed — and the other is left-handed. Notice how the upper arm (in the middle) is always higher than the lower arm (in the bottom). Think of it.
In most cases, I believe it’s just that we are working together differently when driving — we try to control the arm movement instead of the leg movement. This makes our arms and legs feel weaker and more prone to injury, but it also makes them easier to
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