Our bodies have more than 200 joints in them, and a number of each type of ligament; these all work together to pull, stabilize and support our body. When we move our arms, we use a variety of muscles to do so.
The human arms are divided into the forearm bones, the index finger (2 fingers) and thumb, and the ulnae (2 fingers and 2 toes). The forearm bones, the middle finger and thumb, are supported by six or seven different groups of muscles: 1) abductors (pivots), 2) adductors (pulls, twists, twists, twists), 3) extensors, 4) extensors (slides, lifts, shakes), 5) extensors (pulls, pushes, shakes, twists), 6) flexors (extricates, moves, pushes, twists), and 7) extensors (pulls, pulls, twists, twists).
Each of these muscle groups has a specific function in how our arms move.
The abduction and adduction muscles work to raise our arms at the elbow when we are holding the object (like a paper clip). Adductors attach the thumb to the end of the elbow and raise the thumb and index finger; abductors attach the fingers to the end of the hand and hold the object horizontally and the fingers bend to lift the object (like the stick in the diagram below).
Extensors can be used to rotate the thumb and fingers and rotate the stick, but also extend the stick in order to hold it in position.
The extensors can rotate (push) the fingers up into the air when you are holding onto the back of a chair. The flexors attach a thumb to the end of the forearm and straighten the fingers, making them fit into the holes of a table or cup.
Adductors and flexors work together in pulling the thumb toward the palm when you are holding onto things that are sideways, and to the tips of the fingers when you are holding things that are horizontal.
The adductors and extensors also coordinate to allow the fingers to bend and shift their joints back and forth with the movement of the palm against the object (think about the thumb and index finger bending on the end of the elbow when your arm is held horizontally).
The flexors and extensors also coordinate while turning and twisting. Flexors and extensors also coordinate to allow the fingers to turn in order
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